todo o material postado no blog pode ser encontrado na internet

Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period as Opus Francigenum ("French work") with the term Gothic first appearing during the later part of the Renaissance. Its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and churches of Europe. It is also the architecture of many castles, palaces, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings, such as dorms and rooms.

It is in the great churches and cathedrals and in a number of civic buildings that the Gothic style was expressed most powerfully, its characteristics lending themselves to appeals to the emotions, whether springing from faith or from civic pride. A great number of ecclesiastical buildings remain from this period, of which even the smallest are often structures of architectural distinction while many of the larger churches are considered priceless works of art and are listed with UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. For this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches.

A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and continued, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20th century.


The term "Gothic architecture" originated as a pejorative description. Giorgio Vasari used the term "barbarous German style" in his Lives of the Artists to describe what is now considered the Gothic style, and in the introduction to the Lives he attributes various architectural features to "the Goths" whom he holds responsible for destroying the ancient buildings after they conquered Rome, and erecting new ones in this style. At the time in which Vasari was writing, Italy had experienced a century of building in the Classical architectural vocabulary revived in the Renaissance and seen as evidence of a new Golden Age of learning and refinement.

The Renaissance had then overtaken Europe, overturning a system of culture that, prior to the advent of printing, was almost entirely focused on the Church and was perceived, in retrospect, as a period of ignorance and superstition. Hence, François Rabelais, also of the 16th century, imagines an inscription over the door of hisutopian Abbey of Thélème, "Here enter no hypocrites, bigots..." slipping in a slighting reference to "Gotz" and "Ostrogotz."

In English 17th-century usage, "Goth" was an equivalent of "vandal", a savage despoiler with a Germanic heritage, and so came to be applied to the architectural styles of northern Europe from before the revival of classical types of architecture.

According to a 19th-century correspondent in the London Journal Notes and Queries:
There can be no doubt that the term 'Gothic' as applied to pointed styles of ecclesiastical architecture was used at first contemptuously, and in derision, by those who were ambitious to imitate and revive the Grecian orders of architecture, after the revival of classical literature. Authorities such as Christopher Wren lent their aid in deprecating the old medieval style, which they termed Gothic, as synonymous with everything that was barbarous and rude.
On 21 July 1710, the Académie d'Architecture met in Paris, and among the subjects they discussed, the assembled company noted the new fashions of bowed and cusped arches on chimneypieces being employed "to finish the top of their openings. The Company disapproved of several of these new manners, which are defective and which belong for the most part to the Gothic.

The Seven Key Characteristics of Gothic Architecture

Fundamentally, gothic architecture transformed castles, churches, cathedrals and pretty much the whole of Europe!
This style of architecture developed because of common architectural problems in Medieval times.
Back in the 1100s-1200s, building skills were extremely limited. Stone castles were rudimentary - dark, cold, and damp.
Gothic architecture tried to solve some of these unpleasant problems, and created light, pleasant and airy buildings. Before the gothic, architecture was functional. Now, architecture became beautiful.
This menacing gargoyle I discovered in Munich is a great example of gothic architecture. Why build a simple rain-gutter, when you could turn it into a monster?!

Some gothic buildings - particularly churches and cathedrals, such as York Minster, in York, England (the largest gothic cathedral in Northern Europe) - were rendered into awe-inspiring places of piety and worship, as a result of their phenomenal gothic design.

Many castles adopted some of the characteristics of gothic architecture, too. They became transformed from dank living environments into majestic, light and pleasant residences for the lords and ladies within.

Don't forget, though, that the term 'gothic architecture' is a retrospective term. Medieval people wouldn't have used it. Back in Medieval times, this form of building was called 'the modern style'. If you're interested, the history of gothic architecture is on the next page of this series.

  • 1. Grand, Tall Designs, Which Swept Upwards With Height and Grandeur

In the times before gothic architecture, Early Medieval architects struggled to spread the weight of heavy stone walls.

This meant that most towers needed to be short, and buildings thin, otherwise the sheer weight of higher levels (or large rooms and halls) would collapse into themselves.

One of the fundamental characteristics of gothic architecture was its height. New building techniques (such as the flying buttress, detailed below) enabled architects to spread the weight of taller walls and loftier towers.

This all meant that gothic buildings could, quite literally, scale new heights. It allowed them to reach up to the heavens - perfect for cathedrals and churches.

  • 2. The Flying Buttress

The flying buttress is the defining external characteristic of gothic architecture. These buttresses effectively spread the weight of the new designs, taking the weight off the walls and transferring force directly to the ground.

"The flying buttress was practical and decorative, too"

However, what's particularly notable about the flying buttress is that it's decorative, too.

Rather than just being a simple support, buttresses were often elaborately designed and extremely decorative. They appeared to dart and sweep around each building, giving a sense of movement and of grandeur missing from previous architectural designs.

  • 3. The Pointed Arch

The innovation of the pointed arch which was the defining internal characteristic of gothic architecture. Its significance was both practical and decorative.

The pointed arch effectively distributed the force of heavier ceilings and bulkier designs, and could support much more weight than previous, simple pillars.

The stronger arches allowed for much more vertical height, too - they literally reached up to the heavens.

The gothic arch wasn't just a workhorse. It had an aesthetic value and beauty which influenced many other features of gothic design - most notably the vaulted ceiling.

Malbork Castle, in Poland, has some excellent examples of pointed ceilings.

  • 4. The Vaulted Ceiling
The vaulted ceiling was an innovation which lead on from the achievements of the pointed arch.

Irregular, vaulted ceilings utilised the technology of the pointed arch to spread force and weight from upper floors. The arch also provided the impression of height and magnificence, giving the vaulted ceiling a feeling of grandeur and elegance.

The distribution of force within the vaulted ceiling enabled vaults to be built in different shapes and sizes, too. Previously, vaults could only have been circular or rectangular.

The picture above is again an example from Malbork Castle, in Poland.

  • 5. The Light and Airy Interior

Before gothic architecture, castles and early Medieval buildings were pretty depressing places to live in or worship in.
Castles, in particular, were places of damp and mould, as most weren't built strong enough to support slate or stone roofing. Although these fortresses could more or less prop up wooden roofs, these let in the rain.
If that wasn't depressing enough, these old environments tended to be dark and dingy. The windows were generally tiny, as the force of the walls would collapse into themselves if they included any larger glassworks.

Gothic architecture strove to be the exact anthesis to this older Medieval style of building.

It emphasised light, bright windows and airy interiors, transforming castles and churches into more pleasant and majestic environments.

  • 6. The Gargoyles of Gothic Architecture

One of the most notable characteristics of gothic architecture is the gargoyle. Gargoyles are decorative, monstrous little creatures, perched at along the roofs and battlements of gothic buildings and castles.

Gargoyles have a practical purpose: they're spouts, enabling rainwater to drain off the roof and gush through their mouths, before plummeting to the ground (guttering is a relatively recent innovation!).

However, gargoyles had another intended purpose: to strike fear into the hearts of ill-educated Medieval peasants, scaring them into the church or cathedral. Many gargoyles include elements of the grotesque: exaggerated, evil features or threatening poses, which would have leered down from on-high.

In a world marked with fear and superstition, these creepy creatures would undoubtedly have encouraged many to seek solace and safety inside of a church or cathedral- protected from the demons and ghouls which roamed outside. The gargoyle is one of the defining characteristics of gothic architecture, and sticks in the mind even to today.

Of course, you could always explore more about the spooky, creepy and downright haunted aspects of gothic architecture.

  • 7. The Emphasis Upon the Decorative Style and the Ornate

Gothic architecture marked the first time that beauty and aesthetic values had been incorporated into building design. This revolutionised the way that Medieval architects began to think of buildings. Architecture was no longer just functional - it began to have merit and meaning in its own right.

Increasingly ambitious and ornate designs of church, cathedral and castle came to be built. Rivalry and competition drew different groups of builders to conceive and construct grander and more decorative designs, for the glory of the Christian region.

How "The Modern Style" Became to Be Associated With Barbarians: A Quick History of Gothic Architecture

Gothic architecture revolutionised the appearance of Mid-Medieval buildings. Do remember though, that 'gothic' is actually a retrospective term. It wouldn't have been used in Medieval times. This style of architecture was, back then, called the "Modern Style", and it was a revolutionary influence for all castles, churches and palaces in Europe.

The style originally became popular in France from the 1150s, and spread with surprising speed across the whole of Europe.

Some 300 years later, in the 1450s, this style began to go out of fashion. Renaissance architects, the new vogue, started to pour scorn upon this style of architecture.

They derided it as being old-fashioned and uncouth, because it was fantastical, exaggerated and daring. Their Renaissance style was classical, solid, pure, and symmetrical.

To express their scorn, the Renaissance architects actually coined the term 'gothic architecture'. 'Gothic' was a pejorative term, as the goths were barbarians who had wreaked havoc on Europe hundreds of years earlier. The choice of "gothic architecture" expressed their disgust for an architectural style that they felt had blighted the face of Europe.

However, the gothic style was - and is to today - absolutely unstoppable. In the mid 1600s, the style resurfaced, and was re-invented for more modern audiences. The 'gothic revival' period (or the "neo-gothic" period; also referred to in England as the "Victorian gothic") saw many of the characteristics of gothic architecture re-invented for more modern buildings.

Buildings built in the gothic revival style include the Houses of Parliament in London; Parliament Hill in Ontario, Washington Cathedral, and many campuses of 1800s Universities worldwide.

These adopted the common characteristics of gothic architecture in a more modern style.

The gothic style is still phenomenally popular today, and is the design-of-choice for new churches, cathedrals and similar buildings in Europe and the Americas.

Many of the key characteristics of gothic architecture have been adopted into more modern architectural designs, and our current aesthetic style owes a great deal to the roots of the gothic architecture movement in Medieval times.

Traduzir para ChinêsTraduzir para Espanholtraduzir para françêstraduzir para inglêstraduzir para alemãotraduzir para japonêsTraduzir para Russo

MikeLiveira's Space on Tumblr